Tragedy of the Commons is a Myth

Commoning Groups: A Survey of the Spectrum

As we continue to advance into the digital age, the interplay between technology and society grows more intricate and intimate. One fascinating area of exploration is the intersection between commoning groups and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The world of ‘commoning’—a term describing the collective ownership and management of resources—seems to be on a collision course with…

As we continue to advance into the digital age, the interplay between technology and society grows more intricate and intimate. One fascinating area of exploration is the intersection between commoning groups and Artificial Intelligence (AI). The world of ‘commoning’—a term describing the collective ownership and management of resources—seems to be on a collision course with the realm of AI, sparking discussions about the possibilities, implications, and challenges at this crossroads.

Commoning groups, from peer-to-peer platforms to cooperatives, democratize access to resources, promote equitable wealth distribution, and foster sustainable practices. They focus on collective wellbeing rather than individual gain, prioritizing shared stewardship and democratic decision-making. With the advent of AI, these groups stand on the precipice of a revolution, offering transformative ways of sharing and managing resources.

AI, with its remarkable ability to analyze vast data sets, make predictions, and automate tasks, can significantly enhance the functioning of commoning groups. It can foster efficient resource management, provide personalized experiences, and even help in making informed decisions. However, with these benefits come several challenges. Concerns about data privacy, job displacement, and the risk of exacerbating inequality loom large.

Moreover, the existing power dynamics in the AI landscape—largely dominated by big tech companies—pose questions about how the ethos of commoning can be maintained when integrating these new technologies. Can AI be democratized to ensure it aligns with the values of commoning groups? How do we balance the benefits of AI with ethical considerations and potential risks?

This intersection of commoning groups and AI is not just a technological issue—it’s a social, economic, and ethical one, presenting a rich field for exploration and critical discussion. The road ahead may be complex, but it promises exciting opportunities for innovation, growth, and a more equitable and sustainable future.

Commoning groups traditionally represent diverse social systems where resources are managed and shared by a community for mutual benefit. Their essence lies in democratic decision-making, shared stewardship, and fostering a sustainable environment. This article explores the variety of commoning groups, such as peer-to-peer platforms, cooperatives, and beyond.

Peer-to-Peer Platforms (P2P)

As we navigate the digital landscape, it’s important to acknowledge both the benefits and drawbacks of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) platforms. Platforms like Uber, Airbnb, Amazon Marketplace, TaskRabbit, and Fiverr have transformed various sectors, but they’ve also faced criticism for issues ranging from destabilizing local economies to the exploitation of workers. Fortunately, there are ethical alternatives emerging in response, like Green Taxi Cooperative, Fairbnb, Bookshop.org, Loconomics, and Echo. These platforms strive to rectify the issues linked with their mainstream counterparts, focusing on fair wages, community benefits, and sustainable practices. Let’s delve deeper into these P2P platforms and their more ethical alternatives.

  1. Uber – A ride-sharing app that connects drivers with passengers. It’s been criticized for low driver wages and sidestepping taxi regulations.Ethical Alternative: Green Taxi Cooperative – A driver-owned taxi cooperative in Denver. It ensures fair wages for drivers and complies with local taxi regulations.
  2. Airbnb – A platform that allows people to rent out their homes or rooms to travelers. Critics argue it can contribute to housing shortages and drive up local rents.Ethical Alternative: Fairbnb – A cooperative platform that allows short-term rentals. It’s designed to comply with local housing regulations and aims to invest a portion of its profits back into the community.
  3. Amazon Marketplace – Allows individuals and businesses to sell products, but has been criticized for harsh treatment of small vendors, tax avoidance, and poor working conditions in warehouses.Ethical Alternative: Bookshop.org – An online bookstore with a mission to financially support local, independent bookstores. They also ensure that their employees work in fair conditions.
  4. TaskRabbit – A labor marketplace where individuals can hire people to do odd jobs. However, workers on the platform can face unstable income and a lack of job security.Ethical Alternative: Loconomics – A cooperative version of a gig economy platform where service professionals are also the owners and have full control over their working conditions.
  5. Fiverr – An online marketplace for freelance services, which has been criticized for promoting a “race to the bottom” where freelancers underbid each other to win gigs.Ethical Alternative: Echo – Echo (Economy of Hours) is a London-based platform that facilitates the trading of skills and services without money. Instead, users earn Echoes, a currency based on time, fostering a community-oriented and fair exchange.

These platforms have become increasingly common with the advent of digital technology, revolutionizing the way we share resources. In P2P platforms, individuals interact to buy, sell, or exchange goods, services, or information directly, without the need for a traditional intermediary. Examples include Airbnb, where individuals share their homes, and Wikipedia, where users collaboratively create a knowledge base.

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However, P2P platforms can also be commoning groups when they’re organized and managed democratically by users. In such cases, they help redistribute power and wealth by enabling direct access to resources and decision-making. An example is a peer-to-peer energy trading platform where users can produce, consume, and trade renewable energy within their local community, significantly reducing reliance on large energy corporations.

  1. Green Taxi Cooperative: A driver-owned taxi cooperative in Denver.
  2. Fairbnb: A cooperative platform that allows short-term rentals.
  3. Bookshop.org: An online bookstore with a mission to financially support local, independent bookstores.
  4. Loconomics: A cooperative version of a gig economy platform.
  5. Echo (Economy of Hours): A London-based platform that facilitates the trading of skills and services without money.

Platform Cooperatives

Platform cooperatives are a direct response to the platform capitalism model that most P2P platforms adopt. Unlike traditional P2P platforms, where value and control are concentrated in the hands of a few shareholders, platform cooperatives are owned and governed by their members. This could include workers, users, or a combination of both.

Platform cooperatives are designed to serve their members’ needs and interests. They adhere to the values of democracy, equitable sharing of the wealth generated, and sustainability. Examples include Stocksy, a stock photo platform owned by photographers, and Fairmondo, a marketplace owned and governed by its users.

  • Stocksy United: A stock photography platform where photographers are members and receive a share of the profits.
  • Green Taxi Cooperative: A Denver-based ride-sharing service owned by its drivers.
  • Fairmondo: A German online marketplace for fair and sustainable goods, owned and governed by its users and employees.
  • Resonate: A streaming service for music where artists and fans are members and stakeholders.
  • Loconomics: A cooperative platform for service professionals to list their services without fees, and consumers can find local services.
  • Up & Go: A platform that allows New York City residents to book home cleaning services from local worker cooperatives.
  • The Internet of Ownership: A directory of platform cooperatives, owned by a nonprofit organization dedicated to the digital commons.
  • Savvy Cooperative: A platform where patients can share their healthcare experiences and insights, owned and governed by its patient members.
  • Steward: A crowdfunding platform for sustainable farming and food projects, governed by its community of investors and farmers.

Platform Cooperatives to Keep Your Data Safe

Land and Housing Cooperatives

Land and housing cooperatives offer an alternative to traditional ownership and rental models. Here, property is jointly owned and managed by its residents or users. Such cooperatives help ensure affordable and secure housing, promote a sense of community, and enable shared decision-making regarding property maintenance and improvements.

  1. Limited Equity Cooperatives (USA): Limited equity cooperatives are a model of affordable housing designed to benefit low and moderate-income families. One example is the Amalgamated Housing Cooperative in the Bronx, New York, which was established in 1927 and is considered the oldest housing cooperative in the United States.
  2. The Co-operative Housing Federation of Toronto (Canada): The Co-operative Housing Federation of Toronto provides resources and services to housing cooperatives in the Greater Toronto Area. It includes a variety of housing cooperatives, including those catering to families, seniors, and students.
  3. Kalkbreite (Switzerland): Kalkbreite is a housing cooperative located in Zurich, Switzerland, and is known for its sustainable practices. It includes residential and commercial spaces, and encourages a car-free lifestyle by providing extensive bike parking and easy access to public transportation.
  4. LILAC (UK): LILAC (Low Impact Living Affordable Community) is a co-housing project in Leeds, UK. It is a fully mutual co-op, meaning that members are both tenants and landlords. The houses are built using straw bales and timber frames, demonstrating a commitment to sustainable and ecological living.
  5. Mietshäuser Syndikat (Germany): The Mietshäuser Syndikat is a network of over 100 self-organized, self-owned houses throughout Germany. Each house is an autonomous project, owned and controlled by the people who live in it, but they are all legally and financially connected to provide mutual support.
Land and Housing Cooperatives

For example, the Champlain Housing Trust in Vermont, USA, a community land trust, provides affordable housing while residents participate in the governance of the cooperative.

Open Source Communities

Open source communities are another form of digital commoning group where software or other digital assets are collectively produced, used, and maintained. All users have access to the source code and can modify or improve it, leading to a collaborative and iterative development process. Linux is a prime example of this model.

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Knowledge and Education Commons

The emergence of digital technologies has also spurred the creation of knowledge and education commons, where educational resources are collaboratively produced and shared freely. Examples include Khan Academy, a non-profit online platform offering free educational resources, and OpenStax, a project providing free, peer-reviewed textbooks.

COMMONS IN ACTION – Knowledge Commons

Commoning groups represent a critical move towards democratizing access to resources, ensuring more equitable distribution of wealth, and fostering sustainable practices. Whether digital or physical, these communities provide an alternative to traditional capitalist models, focusing more on the collective good rather than individual gain. As we continue to seek models that are sustainable, equitable, and democratic, these commoning groups offer invaluable lessons for the future.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Commoning

As we progress into an era where Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly prevalent, it has the potential to significantly transform the landscape of commoning, affecting the ways resources are shared and managed. While this change can bring about numerous benefits, it also poses several challenges. The future of commoning in the time of AI largely depends on how we balance these benefits and challenges.

Positive Impacts:

  1. Efficiency and Predictive Analytics: AI, with its ability to analyze vast amounts of data and make predictions, can contribute to the efficient management of shared resources. For example, in a P2P energy network, AI can predict energy production and demand, optimizing distribution.
  2. Automation of Tasks: AI can automate routine tasks, freeing up more time for community members to focus on other activities that require human creativity and insight.
  3. Personalization: In commoning groups like P2P education networks, AI can provide personalized learning experiences by recommending content based on a learner’s behavior and preferences.

Challenges and Power Dynamics:

  1. Accessibility and Inequality: As AI technology often requires significant resources to develop and maintain, there’s a risk that only well-resourced communities can take full advantage of AI. This could exacerbate inequality within and among different commoning groups.
  2. Control Over AI Technology: Large tech companies currently dominate AI development. If these entities provide AI tools to commoning groups, they could potentially influence how these groups operate, disrupting their self-governance.
  3. Data Privacy and Security: AI systems rely on large amounts of data, raising concerns about privacy and security. Communities will need to implement robust measures to protect members’ data.
  4. Job Displacement: Automation through AI might displace jobs that were previously performed by humans within these commoning groups. This could disrupt the community’s economy and members’ livelihoods.

Balancing these aspects requires careful thought and action. It’s crucial to ensure that AI technology is accessible and beneficial to all, respects privacy, and upholds democratic principles. The power dynamics currently at play in the AI landscape highlight the importance of open-source AI and efforts to democratize AI technology, allowing commoning groups to take full advantage of AI without compromising their values and autonomy. As we look ahead, how these technologies are integrated into commoning practices will be a significant determinant of their future.

A1: Commoning groups are social systems where resources are managed and shared collectively by a community for mutual benefit. They are often characterized by democratic decision-making, shared stewardship, and sustainability.

A2: There are several types of commoning groups, including peer-to-peer platforms, platform cooperatives, land and housing cooperatives, open-source communities, and knowledge and education commons.

A3: P2P platforms are online networks where individuals interact directly to buy, sell, or exchange goods, services, or information without a traditional intermediary. When organized democratically by users, these platforms can function as commoning groups.

A5: Land and housing cooperatives are forms of shared ownership where property is jointly owned and managed by its residents or users. These cooperatives help ensure affordable and secure housing, promote a sense of community, and allow shared decision-making.

A6: Open-source communities are digital commoning groups where software or other digital assets are collectively produced, used, and maintained. All users have access to the source code and can modify or improve it, leading to a collaborative and iterative development process.

A7: Knowledge and education commons are spaces where educational resources are collaboratively produced and shared freely. This can occur on online platforms that offer educational resources and textbooks free of charge.

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Discussion of the main challenges faced by platform cooperatives in the time of AI: Technological Complexity: Implementing AI technology is complex and can be beyond the technical capabilities of many platform cooperatives. AI requires substantial data, computational power, and expertise to be effective. Data Privacy: AI depends on large amounts of data for training and operations. As cooperative platforms prioritize user privacy and data protection, they may find it challenging to collect enough data to effectively implement AI technologies. Funding: Developing and implementing AI solutions can be expensive. As platform cooperatives often operate with limited capital compared to private platforms, they might struggle to find the necessary funding. B. Possible solutions or strategies to overcome these challenges: Collaboration and Partnerships: To overcome the technological complexity, cooperatives can form partnerships with universities, research institutions, or tech companies that have the necessary expertise. They can also collaborate with other cooperatives to share knowledge and resources. Privacy-preserving AI technologies: Utilizing privacy-preserving technologies like differential privacy or federated learning can help cooperatives harness the power of AI while respecting data privacy. Alternative Funding Sources: Platform cooperatives can explore alternative funding sources such as public funding, crowdfunding, or grants from foundations that support social innovation. They can also explore innovative business models to generate additional revenue. By overcoming these challenges, platform cooperatives have the potential to leverage AI in ways that align with their democratic principles, further distinguishing them from traditional platforms. They can use AI to improve their services and operations, enhance user experience, and drive social impact while maintaining commitment to their values of shared ownership, democratic governance, and community well-bein
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